The following references, many of which can be access or downloaded for free, cover: protecting sites in conflict, protecting sites from looting, protecting sites during natural disasters, as well as risk management and emergency planning, which overlap with the other fields.
Risk Preparedness and Emergency Planning
ICCROM – The ABC Method – A risk management approach to the preservation of cultural heritage
This manual offers a comprehensive understanding of risk management applied to the preservation of heritage assets, whether collections, buildings or sites. It provides a step-by-step procedure and a variety of tools to guide the heritage professional in applying the ABC method to their own context. The method can be applied to a range of situations, from analysis of a single risk to a comprehensive risk assessment of the entire heritage asset.
ICCROM – A Guide to Risk Management of Cultural Heritage
This guide is an abridged version of The ABC Method. It explains the ABC Method using many images, basic examples and simple exercises. It has been designed to introduce the risk-based approach to decision makers and to promote its use by heritage professionals and a younger generation of conservators.
Preparing for the future: mitigating disasters and building resilience in the cultural heritage sector by Fiona McAllister, 2015, Journal of the Institute of Conservation 38(2), 115-129
A large number of useful articles and texts have been compiled by the NGO Heritage for Peace and are available on their website.
Download Building an Emergency Plan: A Guide for Museums and Other Cultural Institutions (pdf) Dorge, V & Jones, S. The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, 1999.
Download Collections Theft Response Procedures (pdf) Wilbur Faulk and Laurie Sowd. The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles 2001.
Disaster/Emergency planning (online guide) the British Library. Preservation Advisory Centre.
Disaster Planning, Response and Recovery. (Webpage) Museums & Galleries NSW.
Download Primer on Disaster Preparedness, Management & Response (pdf). Smithsonian Institution, National Archives and Records Administration, Library of Congress, and National Park Service.
Download Risk Preparedness: a management manual for world cultural heritage (pdf) Herb Stovel. ICCROM, 1998.
Download Flooding and Historic Buildings 2nd Edition. Technical Advice Note (pdf) English Heritage, 2007.
Read the Disaster and Safety Library, by the British Red Cross. Factsheets on how to deal with emergencies such as flooding and earthquakes available in multiple languages, with important safety tips.
Access Cabinet Office Community Risk Registers, which provide information about the National and Community Risk Registers. You can also Google “community risk register xxxxxxx” for your town. If available, it will give information about the major risks already identified by related organisations. Useful documents to look at when assessing the specific risks to sites/buildings, although it may be of more relevance for properties based in urban settings. Local risk registers can be found by googling – some are more detailed than others.
A great deal of advice and guidance on Emergency Preparedness; Response and Recovery; planning in relation to specific types of emergency from fire, drought to structural failure and industrial technical failure; Case studies; and Business Continuity pages is available from the UK Government Department of Civil Contingencies, Cabinet Office. The site is the webpage for the Civil Contingencies Secretariat (CCS), which works in partnership with government departments and others to enhance the UK’s ability to respond to and recover from emergencies.
Access the Conservation Register to find out contact details for conservators working in a given area, by postcode and location. Some will specify that they provide advice and practical support in the event of a disaster.
The Environment Agency website (for flooding information)
Access Heritage and Resilience (pdf). ICORP and ICOMOS, 2013.
Access Preparing Scotland Scottish Exercise Guidance July 2009 (pdf). The Scottish Government, 2009.
There is a great deal of guidance freely available on the UK emergency planning webpages.
Guidance on preventive measures and repair post-flooding for historic buildings at risk of flooding has been published by Historic England. Historic England, Flooding and Historic Buildings, revised 2nd edn (London: Historic England, 2015),
Guidance on how to integrate consideration about the historic environment into hazard mitigation planning has been produced by FEMA. Integrating Historic Property and Cultural Resource Considerations into Hazard Mitigation Planning: State and Local Mitigation Planning How-to Guide, FEMA 386-6 (May 2005),
Historic Scotland has produced guidance on how to protect buildings from theft of lead (an increasing cause of water ingress into historic buildings), and a number of detailed technical advice notes on fire safety management, fire risk management, fire protection and use of sprinkler systems, amongst many other such guidance notes.
Lead Theft: Guidance on Protecting Traditional Buildings (Edinburgh: Historic Scotland, 2012), see also http://conservation. historic-scotland.gov.uk/home/resourcecentre/buildingmanagement/firemanagement.htm
Guidance on managing disaster risks at World Heritage sites has been published by UNESCO, and is widely applicable in other heritage situations. UNESCO, Managing Disaster Risks for World Heritage. Resource Manual (Paris: UNESCO, 2010),
Crisis Management Guidance and Good Practice PAS 200.2011
BSI PD25666:2010 Business continuity management – Guidance on exercising and testing for continuity and contingency programmes
BSI ISO 22301.2012 Societal security – Business continuity management systems – Requirements
Military Doctrinal Handbooks
Ministère de la Défense, Centre de Doctrine d’Emploi des Forces. 2015. Handbook on the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. PFT. 5.3.2. [EMP 50.665]
Protecting Sites in Conflict: texts available for download
Download First Aid to Cultural Heritage in Times of Conflict (pdf) by ICCROM, 2009 / 10.
Download Cultural Heritage in Postwar Recovery. Papers from the ICCROM FORUM held October 4-6, 2005, (pdf) by Stanley-Price, Stanley (ed.). ICCROM, Rome, 2007.
Key Texts on Heritage in Conflict:
Chapman, J. 1994. Notes: Destruction of a Common Heritage: The Archaeology of War in Croatia, Bosnia and Hercegovinia. Antiquity 68 (1), 120-126.
Kila. J. D. 2013. Forum: Inactive, Reactive or Proactive? Cultural Property Crimes in the Context of Contemporary Armed Conflicts. Journal of Eastern Mediterranean Archaeology and Heritage Studies 1 (4): 319-342This article was followed by a series of responses. All articles are available open-access here.
Kila, J. D. 2012. Heritage under Siege: Military Implementation of Cultural Property Protection Following the 1954 Hague Convention. Heritage and Identity. Leiden: Brill.
Kila, J. D. and Z. J. A, eds. 2013. Cultural Heritage in the Crosshairs : Protecting Cultural Property During Conflict, Leiden: Brill.
O’Keefe, R. 2006. The Protection of Cultural Property in Armed Conflict. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press.
Stone, P.G. 2009 “Protecting Cultural Heritage in Times of Conflict: Lessons from Iraq.” Archaeologies: Volume 5, Issue1, 32-39.
Stone P.G. 2013. A four-tier approach to the protection of cultural property in the event of armed conflict. Antiquity 87(335): 166-177.
Stone, P.G. 2012 “Human Rights and Cultural Property Protection in Times of Conflict.” International Journal of Heritage Studies, 18(3), 271-284.
Stone, P.G. 2012 “When everyone’s culpable, is anyone guilty?’ Responsibility for the cultural heritage before, during, and after armed conflict.” in R. Matthews & J. Curtis (eds) Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, Volume 2, Harrassowitz Verlag, Wiesbaden, 3-13.
Stone, P. G., ed. 2011. Cultural Heritage, Ethics, and the Military, Woodbridge, Suffolk; Rochester, N.Y.: Boydell Press.
Stone, P.G. 2009 “Archaeology and Conflict: An Impossible Relationship?” Conservation and Management of Archaeological Sites. 11:3/4: 315-332
Stone, P. and J. Farchakh-Bajjaly, eds. 2008. The Destruction of Cultural Heritage in Iraq, Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press.
Teijgeler, R. 2006. Preserving cultural heritage in times of conflict. In: Gorman, G. E. and Shep, S. J. (eds.) Preservation Management for Libraries, Archives & Museums. London, Facet: 133-165.
Published online at Culture and Development/Kultur und Entwicklung. Heritage Protection on September 13, 2006.
Key Texts on Looting
A significant amount of research and publications are available through the Trafficking Culture Project website at Glasgow University.
A UNESCO Information Kit elaborating on The Fight Against The Illicit Trafficking Of Cultural Objects can be downloaded here.
Other important articles are:
Contreras, D. A. and N. Brodie 2010. Quantifying Destruction: An Evaluation of the Utility of Publicly-Available Satellite Imagery for Investigating Looting of Archaeological Sites in Jordan. Journal of Field Archaeology 35, 101-114.
Lasaponara, R., G. Leucci, N. Masini and R. Persico 2014. Investigating Archaeological Looting Using Satellite Images and Georadar: The Experience in Lambayeque in North Peru. Journal of Archaeological Science 42, 216-230.
Stone, E. C. 2008. Patterns of Looting in Southern Iraq. Antiquity 82 (1), 125-138.
Protecting Sites during Natural Disasters: texts available for download
(Also, see Risk Preparedness and Emergency Planning)
Protecting the Cultural Heritage from Natural Disasters (pdf). 2006. European Parliament Policy Department. The study examines current national and international instruments and activities to protect cultural heritage from natural disasters, giving examples of best practices and describing problems and shortcomings.
Protection of Cultural Heritage: Handbook. (pdf) (Module with the School of Civil Protection). Massue, J P., and Schvoerer, M. Covers cultural heritage and risks, risk preparedness, and suggested measures in the event of natural disasters.
Protecting America’s Natural and Cultural Resources and Historic Properties (NCH) During Disasters: Supporting the National Response Framework (pdf). Whilst specific to the ESF, this can provide a template of suggested actions.
ICOMOS Japan: The Great East Japan Earthquake, Report to Damage on Cultural Heritage (pdf). A fascinating summary of events, with comparisons of the effects on different building construction methods.
Access the Auckland Council Guide: Earthquake prone-buildings (pdf). Auckland Council, 2013.
Access Shoring Templates and operating procedures for the support of buildings damaged by earthquakes (pdf). Ministry of Interior Italian Fire Service, 2010. (in English).
United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction – Stop Disasters Game – A fun interactive game, played on the computer covering actions that can be taken in the case of earthquake, flood, hurricane, tsunami and wildfire.